Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that infects and damages the liver and kidneys. It leads to organ failure and usually death.

Rodents and wild animals carry this disease in their urine, which passes into soil or water, where it can survive for weeks.

CAUSES:

Your dog can get leptospirosis through direct contact with the bacteria. Either symptoms will show within a week, or the dog will only become a carrier and not show any symptoms.

Animals can spread leptospirosis to humans, causing flu-like symptoms, and sometimes life-threatening illnesses. If you think you may have been exposed, contact your physician.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Lethargy
  • Excessive drinking, urination
  • Loss of appetite, weight loss
  • Vomiting, bloody diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Jaundice (yellow skin, mouth and white of the eyes)
  • Stiffness
  • Bad breath
  • Bleeding from the nose

If you notice any of the above symptoms, go to your veterinarian immediately, because leptospirosis can lead to kidney failure and death.

DIAGNOSIS:

To diagnose your dog, your veterinarian may perform the following:

  • Blood tests: CBC, chemistry panel, and a test to check for antibodies of this bacteria
  • Urine tests
  • Kidney or liver biopsies

TREATMENT:

Most veterinarians will take the following course of action for your dog:

  • Hospital stay
  • Antibiotics
  • Dialysis
  • IV fluid therapy
  • Oral antibiotics (for home use)

Make sure to give your dog the full course of medication and to follow up with your veterinarian.

PREVENTION:

Dogs:

  • Vaccine: not always given with the regular vaccination schedule because there are some risks; discuss with your veterinarian
  • Rodents control: they are a main carrier of the bacteria
  • Environment exposure:restrict your dogfrom areas where the bacteria live, such as ponds and muddy areas

Humans:

  • Avoid direct contact with the urine of an infected dog
  • Disinfect areas where the dog urinated
  • Wear gloves when cleaning up areas the dog soiled

PROGNOSIS:

Around a quarter of infected dogs will not survive the initial infection. Dogs that do survive will develop chronic renal failure and remain carriers of the disease with the potential to spread it.

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